It is known in as ''huājiāo'' ; a lesser-used name is ''shānjiāo'' . In , it is ''sanshō'', using the same Chinese characters as ''shanjiao''. In , it is known as ''g.yer ma''. In it is known as ''tepal'' or ''tirphal'' . In Indonesia's North Sumatra province, around Lake Toba, it is known as ''andaliman'' in the Batak Toba language and ''tuba'' in the Batak Karo language. In America, it is sold as fagara or flower pepper as well as Sichuan pepper.
In Nepali it is known as ????? and is widely used in nepalese cuisine.
Sichuan pepper has a unique aroma and flavour that is not hot or pungent like black or white pepper, or chili peppers, but has slight lemony overtones and creates in the mouth a kind of tingly numbness that sets the stage for these hot spices. Recipes often suggest lightly toasting and then crushing the tiny seedpods before adding them to food. Only the husks are used; the seeds are discarded or ignored. It is generally added at the last moment. Star anise and ginger are often used with it and it figures prominently in spicy Sichuan cuisine. It has an alkaline pH and a numbing effect on the lips when eaten in larger doses. '''' , a flavor common in Sichuan cooking, is a combination of Sichuan pepper and chili pepper.
It is also available as an oil . In this form it is best used in stir fry noodle dishes without hot spices. The preferred recipe includes ginger oil and brown sugar to be cooked with a base of noodles and vegetables, with rice vinegar and Sichuan pepper oil to be added after cooking.
''Hua jiao yan'' is a mixture of salt and Sichuan pepper, roasted and browned in a wok and served as a condiment to accompany chicken, duck and pork dishes. The peppercorns can also be lightly fried in order to make a spicy oil with various uses.
In Indonesian Batak cuisine, it is ground into a green ''sambal Tinombur'' or chili paste, by mixing with chilis and seasonings to accompany grilled pork, carp and other regional specialities.
Sichuan pepper is one of the few spices important for Tibetan and Bhutanese cookery of the Himalayas, because few spices can be grown there. One Himalayan specialty is the , a dumpling stuffed with vegetables, cottage cheese or minced yak meat, beef or pork and flavoured with Sichuan pepper, garlic, ginger and onion. The noodles are steamed and served dry, together with a fiery sauce. It is believed that it can sanitize meat that may not be so fresh. In reality it may only serve to mask foul flavors. The foul smell masking property of Sichuan pepper made it popular in dishes made of visceral organs of slaughtered animals.
In Japan the dried and powdered leaves of ''Zanthoxylum sancho'' are used to make noodle dishes and soups mildly hot and fragrant. The whole leaves, 木の芽 ''kinome'', are used to flavour vegetables, especially bamboo shoots, and to decorate soups. Typically the young shoots are used in this way giving and aromatic lemony flavour to food. They are used to denote spring seasonality in food. The buds, seeds, flowers, and hulls are also used.
Sichuan peppercorns are one of the traditional ingredients in the spice mixture five-spice powder and also , a Japanese seven-flavour seasoning.
In , two species are used: ''Z. piperitum'' and ''Z. schinifolium''.
Composition of various species
*''Z. fagara'' — alkaloids, coumarins
*''Z. simulans'' — Mostly , limonene, ,
*''Z. armatum'' — linalool , limonene, methyl cinnamate, cineole
*''Z. rhetsa'' — Sabinene, limonene, pinenes, , terpinenes, 4-terpineol, alpha-terpineol.
*''Z. piperitum'' — citronellal, citronellol,
The genus name ''Zanthoxylum'' or ''Xanthoxylum'' comes from the ''xanthon xylon'' , meaning "blond wood."
From 1968 to 2005, the United States Food and Drug Administration banned the importation of Sichuan peppercorns because they were found to be capable of carrying citrus canker . This bacterial disease, which is very difficult to control, could potentially harm the foliage and fruit of citrus crops in the U.S. It was never an issue of harm in human consumption. The import ban was only loosely enforced until 2002 . In 2005, the and FDA lifted the ban, provided the peppercorns are heated to around 70 degrees Celsius to kill the canker bacteria before importation.
It is possible to come across names such as "Szechwan pepper," "Chinese pepper," "Japanese pepper," "aniseed pepper," "Sprice pepper," "Chinese prickly-ash," "Fagara," "sansho," "Nepal pepper," "Indonesian lemon pepper," and others, sometimes referring to specific species within this group, since this plant is not well known enough in the West to have an established name. In Tibet, the spice is known as ''e-ma'' or ''Kham pepper''. At least some of the brands found in in the United States label the product in a confusing way; for instance, the Oriental Mascot brand labels the spice as "red pepper corn," although the Chinese characters on the package indicate it is Sichuan pepper. Some brands also use the English description "Dehydrated Prickly Ash" since Sichuan pepper, and Japanese sansho, are from related plants that are sometimes called prickly ash because of their thorns.
Sichuan pepper is unrelated to black pepper and to chile peppers, which are also widely used in Sichuan cookery.
In Nepal, where it is extensively used, it is known as ''timur'' .
A spice called ''teppal'' or ''tirphal'' is used in the Indian states of Maharashtra, , and Goa, by a very small community called s , an official language of Goa and spoken in many parts of these three states. ''Teppal'' is a fruit which grows in bunches like grapes on trees full of thorns. The fresh fruits are parrot green in color and are used as a flavouring agent in many curries made with a paste of coconut, chilis, and other spices. The fruit is seasonal and available during the monsoon period. When dried, the flesh of the fruit hardens, turns a brownish black color and opens up to show the black seeds within. The seeds are discarded and the dried fruit is stored in containers for use around the year. Mostly used in fish preparations and a few vegetarian dishes, with the coconut masala, this spice has a very strong woody aroma and is discarded at the time of eating the curry. This tree is also called ''jummn kayee'' or ''gamathe haralu'' in and ''koili kaya'' in Malayalam.